The Day Pompeii was Destroyed

In the darkness you could hear the crying of women, the wailing of infants, and the shouting of men. Some prayed for help. Others wished for death. But still more imagined that there were no Gods left, and that the universe was plunged into eternal darkness.

Pliny the Younger

What might the destruction of the ancient Roman city of Pompeii have looked like when Mount Vesuvius erupted? Well, we don’t know for sure, but years of study and science have given us a really good idea. Here’s a fascinating full length animation with sound.

Research Scientists—Heroes of Humanity

When I was a little boy I stayed with my maternal grandmother a lot during the summers when school was out. She was a strong willed southern Baptist woman who’d been raised on a tobacco farm near Danville, Virginia. Every night before bedtime we’d say our prayers together. We asked for the forgiveness of our sins, we gave thanks for all the Lord had given us, and we asked that He bless our family and friends. As far as I knew the requests were granted. I went to bed refreshed and got up the next day ready to load up with sin.

Since then the list of those I’m thankful for and those needing to be blessed has expanded—the friends & family list, well, that may shorten depending on what day you ask me. But the thankful list, for the most part, has clearly expanded. It should have for all of us I’d hope. I’m very grateful for the military personnel who protect our nation, for the police officers who protect us from each other, for the nurses who care for us, for the teachers who educate and help shape our children, and for our political leaders—the very few, that is, who deserve a divine blessing rather than a voodoo curse.

But recently, while watching a TV commercial (below), I was reminded of those heroes—and they truly are—who I’ve always respected and admired but who don’t tend to make the nightly prayer list for most of us…and they deserve to. We’re all thankful for the doctors and nurses who care for us and our loved ones: they provide life saving surgeries and treatments and provide medications that cure disease and allow us to live normal, healthy, lives. But what about the people who actually researched, discovered, and designed these life saving procedures and medicines? Our healthcare comes from “providers.” But what about the Givers to Humanity…the research scientists?

Research scientists are the one’s who actually gave humanity those life saving procedures and medications. Without the discoveries of these research scientists the lives of millions would have been shortened and the quality of life for millions more would have been much worse. Just think of Edward Jenner, who discovered vaccinations. Because of him millions of lives have been spared suffering and a shortened life. Think of Louis Pasteur and the germ theory of disease. How about John Priestly’s discovery of anaesthetics! How about Frederick Banting’s discovery of insulin. How many people have we all known that would have died early deaths without insulin? And of course there are so many scientific discoveries—medical or otherwise—that I could list that are things we now take for granted but are things that without our world would be a much less forgiving and hopeful place. And most of these life giving and improving discoveries come to us from those dedicated to scientific discovery—from research scientists.

They are heroes of humanity. Let us be mindful and give thanks for them.

The Calvert Cliffs at Brownie’s Beach

After paying a modest fee we headed up the path, loaded up with beach bags, cooler, towels, chairs, and water float. Brownie’s Beach is a small beach (part of Bay Front Park) on the southern end of the town of Chesapeake Beach, Maryland. We live down the road from the town.

The walk from the small parking lot is not over sand or through dunes but along a blacktop path through a thick of woods. All along the path are educational plaques naming particular flora. The only other sign which attracts notice (I paused briefly) is a warning sign nailed to a tree. There are cliffs near by so “by order of the town council” you’re told not to enter the “cliff area.” Directly under the warning sign is a well worn path leading toward the cliff area revealing just what people think about the town council’s order.

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Warning Sign

As we approached the beach area we could hear the faint sound of boat motors off in the distance and the muted voices of fellow beach goers. The thick canopy of trees had dimmed the sun light, and along with the surrounding thick woods, marsh and brush, it had made the path feel almost like an entry point between two worlds. Walking behind my youngest son and his friend, I snapped the following picture of them about to emerge from the entry path.

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The beach area is a slim strip of sea sand and the various accretions from the eroding cliffs—shale, sandstone, clay, and fallen trees. Dropping our bags and looking south we see parts of the rock face of Calvert Cliffs. The Cliffs start at Brownie’s Beach and extend about 25 miles south, ending in the Drum Point area of Calvert County. The cliffs at Brownie’s Beach are at the lower end in height. They get much higher (130 feet in some places) as you head south. (See this search stack of photos.)

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The mind is definitely a mysterious thing…it’s also an associative thing. So, to be candid, my immediate thoughts weren’t of the beauties of nature (those were a close second) but were actually, oddly enough, of Julius Caesar and his Roman invasion fleet as it approached the Dover Cliffs off the coast of southern England in 55 BC. Though the White Cliffs of Dover are far more imposing, I couldn’t help but wonder what the sight of the Calvert bluffs might have meant to the various minds observing them from sea for the first time over the centuries.

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The nature lover sees bleached rock, a sandy beach, green trees and the natural beauty of it all. The scientist sees geological formations, tectonics, and flora. The historical mind sees the beauty and the science but with the added dimension of how geography has played a big part in the course of human history. I’m not a scientist or historian, but having read a small library of history, especially classical history, has obviously stamped my associative mind. So my imagination tends to randomly dart across time, historical events, and the scenes of famous characters.

The boys and I started walking down the beach toward the cliffs. This beach, and all up and down the Calvert Cliffs, is well known for its fossils. It’s a paleontological heaven. One of the first people I talked to was a young lady, who appeared to be a college student, hunting for fossils in the surf. In particular, there are a lot of fossilized shark teeth along these beaches that in some cases belong to sharks from hundreds. My wife and I have friends who’s home fireplace was inlaid with hundreds of shark teeth collected from the Calvert Cliff’s beaches. My friend’s house was located (they’ve since sold it) in a community along these cliffs, called, appropriately enough, Scientist Cliffs. It’s a beautiful community where all the homes have a log cabin exterior.

The water along Brownie’s Beach is surprisingly clear for Chesapeake Bay water. You can see the rippled sandy bottom and schools of fish swimming by. The water is not deep in this area either, making it good for younger kids and for those just wanting to enjoy wading in the water. I can also report that Brownie’s Beach is rarely ever crowded. A big plus.

Typically, here in the east, the summer ritual of beach going involves trips to the large beaches along the Atlantic coast line, with large expansive beach areas, dunes, and the touristy beach town near by. Well you won’t get that here. Here you get a slim beach, calm shallow waters, the soothing sounds of a sea shore, no crowds, and the beautiful view of the Calvert Cliffs.

This trip to the Brownie’s Beach took place on Sunday, July 2, 2017.

The Multiverse Theory

This is an good visualization of the theory. (The original video I posted got removed at the source, so I replaced it with this one. Not bad, but longer.)

The multiverse theory is fascinating. We have good reason to believe there are literally thousands of other universes besides our own, in-which the laws of nature, the physics of those worlds, may be very different from our own. Read The Case for Parallel Universes.

One of my favorite science writers, Alan Lightman, sees the multiverse theory as generating a crisis of faith in science. Why? Because the search for universal laws of nature, the idea that the universe can be reduced to a set of basic universal principles that apply in all instances, is the sine qua non of all the sciences. But if there are other universes, with different natural laws, then the dream of science, in some since, is a leap of faith. We can only know our own world and the one set of physical laws that govern it. And that’s it. Our search for ultimate scientific truths, in other words, that tie all of nature and reality together, our attempt to Knock on Heaven’s door, is a grand illusion.